2. Scientific Auxiliary System

The Scientific Auxiliary System begins with the chief and ends with empiricism. The system establishes the independence of science from religion.

List of steps in the Scientific Auxiliary System - Theoretical Auxiliary Step Categories

  1. Chief - Specialist
  2. Theocratic State - Educational Institution
  3. Greek Philosopher Scientist - Partially Independent Specialist
  4. Empiricism

    1. Chief - Specialist

    The big man and the chief use religion and magic to control their subjects. Primitive people do not distinguish between magic and science so there probably is some specialized scientific knowledge mixed in with the magic. This is probably not terribly important. Scientific knowledge is probably not a major source of a chief's power.

    2. Theocratic State - Educational Institution

    The theocratic state used science more extensively. For example, the calendar was often discovered by the theocratic state. The priest-scribes no doubt used much of their scientific knowledge to buttress their religious pretensions. But some innovations, calendars and mathematics for example, had practical application.

    The priest-scribes who made these discoveries were probably educated. There are several reasons for believing this. First the skills necessary for constructing calendars are complex. Second, these actives were still carried on in historical times by the same caste. Therefore there is historical evidence of education.

    3. Philosopher-Scientist - Partially Independent Specialist

    The Greek philosopher - scientist is the best example of this specialist. As religion enters its competitive stage under the independent thinkers and teachers, science gains an element of independence. This is analogous to the independence gained by the licensed merchant when the state entered its competitive stage. In both cases the more extensive and competitive environment caused the competitive specialist to concentrate on their own specialty. This allows the other sphere a measure of independence.

    The Greek philosopher scientist did not deal exclusively in empirical fact. While they were fairly independent of traditional religious thinking they were not free of unverified ideas which are the source of religion's power. So while the Greek philosopher was somewhat independent from religion they were not nearly as independent as the empirical scientists of the modern period.

    4. Empiricism - Institution Establishing Independence

    First it should be noted that the term empiricism is being used in a loose layman's fashion. The author is anxious to stay out of philosophical debates about where empiricism ends and some other school of thought begins. The important principle is the rejection of religious and traditional authority over scientific discovery. In the market, anyone with the money can buy, anyone with goods can sell. Under what is described here as empiricism, but is really a combination of empiricism and rationalism, anyone with the evidence and the reasoning capable of convincing the scientific community can legitimately make a contribution.

    The principle in both cases is that the transactions or information are judged without reference to the individual. This is, of course, imperfectly followed in both market economies and empirical science, nevertheless this is the strength underlying both institutions.

    The triumph of empiricism is closely related to the success of civil liberty. Many great scientists either were persecuted or feared persecution. Copernicus delayed publication until he was on his death bed. Galilelo was forced by the Inquisition to declare Copernican theory heretical. Many scientists had to flee to civil libertarian countries such as Holland. Some were even forced to flee Holland--it took a while to extend tolerance from other Christian sects to scientists and other unorthodox thinkers. Nevertheless, civil liberty, freedom of speech and press, were important in protecting scientists and allowing them to publish their discoveries.

    The success of empiricism also strengthened the trend toward civil liberty. The intellectual strength and the practical importance of the scientific discoveries strengthened those nations that allowed civil liberty and impressed many of the importance of intellectual freedom.

    Chapter 11 State to World Government

    Tell me what you think in my guest book.